Name

glTexImage2D — specify a two-dimensional texture image

C Specification

void glTexImage2D(GLenum target,
 GLint level,
 GLint internalFormat,
 GLsizei width,
 GLsizei height,
 GLint border,
 GLenum format,
 GLenum type,
 const GLvoid * data);
 

Parameters

target

Specifies the target texture. Must be GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_PROXY_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_X, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_X, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_Y, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_Y, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_Z, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_Z, or GL_PROXY_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP.

level

Specifies the level-of-detail number. Level 0 is the base image level. Level n is the nth mipmap reduction image.

internalFormat

Specifies the number of color components in the texture. Must be 1, 2, 3, or 4, or one of the following symbolic constants: GL_ALPHA, GL_ALPHA4, GL_ALPHA8, GL_ALPHA12, GL_ALPHA16, GL_COMPRESSED_ALPHA, GL_COMPRESSED_LUMINANCE, GL_COMPRESSED_LUMINANCE_ALPHA, GL_COMPRESSED_INTENSITY, GL_COMPRESSED_RGB, GL_COMPRESSED_RGBA, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT16, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT24, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT32, GL_LUMINANCE, GL_LUMINANCE4, GL_LUMINANCE8, GL_LUMINANCE12, GL_LUMINANCE16, GL_LUMINANCE_ALPHA, GL_LUMINANCE4_ALPHA4, GL_LUMINANCE6_ALPHA2, GL_LUMINANCE8_ALPHA8, GL_LUMINANCE12_ALPHA4, GL_LUMINANCE12_ALPHA12, GL_LUMINANCE16_ALPHA16, GL_INTENSITY, GL_INTENSITY4, GL_INTENSITY8, GL_INTENSITY12, GL_INTENSITY16, GL_R3_G3_B2, GL_RGB, GL_RGB4, GL_RGB5, GL_RGB8, GL_RGB10, GL_RGB12, GL_RGB16, GL_RGBA, GL_RGBA2, GL_RGBA4, GL_RGB5_A1, GL_RGBA8, GL_RGB10_A2, GL_RGBA12, GL_RGBA16, GL_SLUMINANCE, GL_SLUMINANCE8, GL_SLUMINANCE_ALPHA, GL_SLUMINANCE8_ALPHA8, GL_SRGB, GL_SRGB8, GL_SRGB_ALPHA, or GL_SRGB8_ALPHA8.

width

Specifies the width of the texture image including the border if any. If the GL version does not support non-power-of-two sizes, this value must be 2 n + 2 border for some integer n. All implementations support texture images that are at least 64 texels wide.

height

Specifies the height of the texture image including the border if any. If the GL version does not support non-power-of-two sizes, this value must be 2 m + 2 border for some integer m. All implementations support texture images that are at least 64 texels high.

border

Specifies the width of the border. Must be either 0 or 1.

format

Specifies the format of the pixel data. The following symbolic values are accepted: GL_COLOR_INDEX, GL_RED, GL_GREEN, GL_BLUE, GL_ALPHA, GL_RGB, GL_BGR, GL_RGBA, GL_BGRA, GL_LUMINANCE, and GL_LUMINANCE_ALPHA.

type

Specifies the data type of the pixel data. The following symbolic values are accepted: GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, GL_BYTE, GL_BITMAP, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT, GL_SHORT, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, GL_INT, GL_FLOAT, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE_3_3_2, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE_2_3_3_REV, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_6_5, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_6_5_REV, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_4_4_4_4, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_4_4_4_4_REV, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_5_5_1, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_1_5_5_5_REV, GL_UNSIGNED_INT_8_8_8_8, GL_UNSIGNED_INT_8_8_8_8_REV, GL_UNSIGNED_INT_10_10_10_2, and GL_UNSIGNED_INT_2_10_10_10_REV.

data

Specifies a pointer to the image data in memory.

Description

Texturing maps a portion of a specified texture image onto each graphical primitive for which texturing is enabled. To enable and disable two-dimensional texturing, call glEnable and glDisable with argument GL_TEXTURE_2D. To enable and disable texturing using cube-mapped texture, call glEnable and glDisable with argument GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP.

To define texture images, call glTexImage2D. The arguments describe the parameters of the texture image, such as height, width, width of the border, level-of-detail number (see glTexParameter), and number of color components provided. The last three arguments describe how the image is represented in memory; they are identical to the pixel formats used for glDrawPixels.

If target is GL_PROXY_TEXTURE_2D or GL_PROXY_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP, no data is read from data, but all of the texture image state is recalculated, checked for consistency, and checked against the implementation's capabilities. If the implementation cannot handle a texture of the requested texture size, it sets all of the image state to 0, but does not generate an error (see glGetError). To query for an entire mipmap array, use an image array level greater than or equal to 1.

If target is GL_TEXTURE_2D, or one of the GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP targets, data is read from data as a sequence of signed or unsigned bytes, shorts, or longs, or single-precision floating-point values, depending on type. These values are grouped into sets of one, two, three, or four values, depending on format, to form elements. If type is GL_BITMAP, the data is considered as a string of unsigned bytes (and format must be GL_COLOR_INDEX). Each data byte is treated as eight 1-bit elements, with bit ordering determined by GL_UNPACK_LSB_FIRST (see glPixelStore).

If a non-zero named buffer object is bound to the GL_PIXEL_UNPACK_BUFFER target (see glBindBuffer) while a texture image is specified, data is treated as a byte offset into the buffer object's data store.

The first element corresponds to the lower left corner of the texture image. Subsequent elements progress left-to-right through the remaining texels in the lowest row of the texture image, and then in successively higher rows of the texture image. The final element corresponds to the upper right corner of the texture image.

format determines the composition of each element in data. It can assume one of these symbolic values:

GL_COLOR_INDEX

Each element is a single value, a color index. The GL converts it to fixed point (with an unspecified number of zero bits to the right of the binary point), shifted left or right depending on the value and sign of GL_INDEX_SHIFT, and added to GL_INDEX_OFFSET (see glPixelTransfer). The resulting index is converted to a set of color components using the GL_PIXEL_MAP_I_TO_R, GL_PIXEL_MAP_I_TO_G, GL_PIXEL_MAP_I_TO_B, and GL_PIXEL_MAP_I_TO_A tables, and clamped to the range [0,1].

GL_RED

Each element is a single red component. The GL converts it to floating point and assembles it into an RGBA element by attaching 0 for green and blue, and 1 for alpha. Each component is then multiplied by the signed scale factor GL_c_SCALE, added to the signed bias GL_c_BIAS, and clamped to the range [0,1] (see glPixelTransfer).

GL_GREEN

Each element is a single green component. The GL converts it to floating point and assembles it into an RGBA element by attaching 0 for red and blue, and 1 for alpha. Each component is then multiplied by the signed scale factor GL_c_SCALE, added to the signed bias GL_c_BIAS, and clamped to the range [0,1] (see glPixelTransfer).

GL_BLUE

Each element is a single blue component. The GL converts it to floating point and assembles it into an RGBA element by attaching 0 for red and green, and 1 for alpha. Each component is then multiplied by the signed scale factor GL_c_SCALE, added to the signed bias GL_c_BIAS, and clamped to the range [0,1] (see glPixelTransfer).

GL_ALPHA

Each element is a single alpha component. The GL converts it to floating point and assembles it into an RGBA element by attaching 0 for red, green, and blue. Each component is then multiplied by the signed scale factor GL_c_SCALE, added to the signed bias GL_c_BIAS, and clamped to the range [0,1] (see glPixelTransfer).

GL_INTENSITY

Each element is a single intensity value. The GL converts it to floating point, then assembles it into an RGBA element by replicating the intensity value three times for red, green, blue, and alpha. Each component is then multiplied by the signed scale factor GL_c_SCALE, added to the signed bias GL_c_BIAS, and clamped to the range [0,1] (see glPixelTransfer).

GL_RGB
GL_BGR

Each element is an RGB triple. The GL converts it to floating point and assembles it into an RGBA element by attaching 1 for alpha. Each component is then multiplied by the signed scale factor GL_c_SCALE, added to the signed bias GL_c_BIAS, and clamped to the range [0,1] (see glPixelTransfer).

GL_RGBA
GL_BGRA

Each element contains all four components. Each component is multiplied by the signed scale factor GL_c_SCALE, added to the signed bias GL_c_BIAS, and clamped to the range [0,1] (see glPixelTransfer).

GL_LUMINANCE

Each element is a single luminance value. The GL converts it to floating point, then assembles it into an RGBA element by replicating the luminance value three times for red, green, and blue and attaching 1 for alpha. Each component is then multiplied by the signed scale factor GL_c_SCALE, added to the signed bias GL_c_BIAS, and clamped to the range [0,1] (see glPixelTransfer).

GL_LUMINANCE_ALPHA

Each element is a luminance/alpha pair. The GL converts it to floating point, then assembles it into an RGBA element by replicating the luminance value three times for red, green, and blue. Each component is then multiplied by the signed scale factor GL_c_SCALE, added to the signed bias GL_c_BIAS, and clamped to the range [0,1] (see glPixelTransfer).

GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT

Each element is a single depth value. The GL converts it to floating point, multiplies by the signed scale factor GL_DEPTH_SCALE, adds the signed bias GL_DEPTH_BIAS, and clamps to the range [0,1] (see glPixelTransfer).

Refer to the glDrawPixels reference page for a description of the acceptable values for the type parameter.

If an application wants to store the texture at a certain resolution or in a certain format, it can request the resolution and format with internalFormat. The GL will choose an internal representation that closely approximates that requested by internalFormat, but it may not match exactly. (The representations specified by GL_LUMINANCE, GL_LUMINANCE_ALPHA, GL_RGB, and GL_RGBA must match exactly. The numeric values 1, 2, 3, and 4 may also be used to specify the above representations.)

If the internalFormat parameter is one of the generic compressed formats, GL_COMPRESSED_ALPHA, GL_COMPRESSED_INTENSITY, GL_COMPRESSED_LUMINANCE, GL_COMPRESSED_LUMINANCE_ALPHA, GL_COMPRESSED_RGB, or GL_COMPRESSED_RGBA, the GL will replace the internal format with the symbolic constant for a specific internal format and compress the texture before storage. If no corresponding internal format is available, or the GL can not compress that image for any reason, the internal format is instead replaced with a corresponding base internal format.

If the internalFormat parameter is GL_SRGB, GL_SRGB8, GL_SRGB_ALPHA, GL_SRGB8_ALPHA8, GL_SLUMINANCE, GL_SLUMINANCE8, GL_SLUMINANCE_ALPHA, or GL_SLUMINANCE8_ALPHA8, the texture is treated as if the red, green, blue, or luminance components are encoded in the sRGB color space. Any alpha component is left unchanged. The conversion from the sRGB encoded component c s to a linear component c l is:

c l = { c s 12.92 if c s 0.04045 ( c s + 0.055 1.055 ) 2.4 if c s > 0.04045

Assume c s is the sRGB component in the range [0,1].

Use the GL_PROXY_TEXTURE_2D or GL_PROXY_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP target to try out a resolution and format. The implementation will update and recompute its best match for the requested storage resolution and format. To then query this state, call glGetTexLevelParameter. If the texture cannot be accommodated, texture state is set to 0.

A one-component texture image uses only the red component of the RGBA color extracted from data. A two-component image uses the R and A values. A three-component image uses the R, G, and B values. A four-component image uses all of the RGBA components.

Depth textures can be treated as LUMINANCE, INTENSITY or ALPHA textures during texture filtering and application. Image-based shadowing can be enabled by comparing texture r coordinates to depth texture values to generate a boolean result. See glTexParameter for details on texture comparison.

Notes

Texturing has no effect in color index mode.

If the ARB_imaging extension is supported, RGBA elements may also be processed by the imaging pipeline. The following stages may be applied to an RGBA color before color component clamping to the range 0 1 :

1. Color component replacement by the color table specified for

GL_COLOR_TABLE, if enabled. See glColorTable.

2. Two-dimensional Convolution filtering, if enabled.

See glConvolutionFilter1D.

If a convolution filter changes the width of the texture (by processing with a GL_CONVOLUTION_BORDER_MODE of GL_REDUCE, for example), and the GL does not support non-power-of-two textures, the width must 2 n + 2 border , for some integer n, and height must be 2 m + 2 border , for some integer m, after filtering.

3. RGBA components may be multiplied by GL_POST_CONVOLUTION_c_SCALE,

and added to GL_POST_CONVOLUTION_c_BIAS, if enabled. See glPixelTransfer.

4. Color component replacement by the color table specified for

GL_POST_CONVOLUTION_COLOR_TABLE, if enabled. See glColorTable.

5. Transformation by the color matrix.

See glMatrixMode.

6. RGBA components may be multiplied by GL_POST_COLOR_MATRIX_c_SCALE,

and added to GL_POST_COLOR_MATRIX_c_BIAS, if enabled. See glPixelTransfer.

7. Color component replacement by the color table specified for

GL_POST_COLOR_MATRIX_COLOR_TABLE, if enabled. See glColorTable.

The texture image can be represented by the same data formats as the pixels in a glDrawPixels command, except that GL_STENCIL_INDEX cannot be used. glPixelStore and glPixelTransfer modes affect texture images in exactly the way they affect glDrawPixels.

glTexImage2D and GL_PROXY_TEXTURE_2D are available only if the GL version is 1.1 or greater.

Internal formats other than 1, 2, 3, or 4 may be used only if the GL version is 1.1 or greater.

In GL version 1.1 or greater, data may be a null pointer. In this case, texture memory is allocated to accommodate a texture of width width and height height. You can then download subtextures to initialize this texture memory. The image is undefined if the user tries to apply an uninitialized portion of the texture image to a primitive.

Formats GL_BGR, and GL_BGRA and types GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE_3_3_2, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE_2_3_3_REV, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_6_5, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_6_5_REV, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_4_4_4_4, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_4_4_4_4_REV, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_5_5_1, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_1_5_5_5_REV, GL_UNSIGNED_INT_8_8_8_8, GL_UNSIGNED_INT_8_8_8_8_REV, GL_UNSIGNED_INT_10_10_10_2, and GL_UNSIGNED_INT_2_10_10_10_REV are available only if the GL version is 1.2 or greater.

When the ARB_multitexture extension is supported or the GL version is 1.3 or greater, glTexImage2D specifies the two-dimensional texture for the current texture unit, specified with glActiveTexture.

GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP and GL_PROXY_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP are available only if the GL version is 1.3 or greater.

GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT16, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT24, and GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT32 are available only if the GL version is 1.4 or greater.

Non-power-of-two textures are supported if the GL version is 2.0 or greater, or if the implementation exports the GL_ARB_texture_non_power_of_two extension.

The GL_SRGB, GL_SRGB8, GL_SRGB_ALPHA, GL_SRGB8_ALPHA8, GL_SLUMINANCE, GL_SLUMINANCE8, GL_SLUMINANCE_ALPHA, and GL_SLUMINANCE8_ALPHA8 internal formats are only available if the GL version is 2.1 or greater.

Errors

GL_INVALID_ENUM is generated if target is not GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_PROXY_TEXTURE_2D, GL_PROXY_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_X, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_X, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_Y, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_Y, GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_Z, or GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_Z.

GL_INVALID_ENUM is generated if target is one of the six cube map 2D image targets and the width and height parameters are not equal.

GL_INVALID_ENUM is generated if type is not a type constant.

GL_INVALID_ENUM is generated if type is GL_BITMAP and format is not GL_COLOR_INDEX.

GL_INVALID_VALUE is generated if width or height is less than 0 or greater than 2 + GL_MAX_TEXTURE_SIZE.

GL_INVALID_VALUE is generated if level is less than 0.

GL_INVALID_VALUE may be generated if level is greater than log 2 max , where max is the returned value of GL_MAX_TEXTURE_SIZE.

GL_INVALID_VALUE is generated if internalFormat is not 1, 2, 3, 4, or one of the accepted resolution and format symbolic constants.

GL_INVALID_VALUE is generated if width or height is less than 0 or greater than 2 + GL_MAX_TEXTURE_SIZE.

GL_INVALID_VALUE is generated if non-power-of-two textures are not supported and the width or height cannot be represented as 2 k + 2 border for some integer value of k.

GL_INVALID_VALUE is generated if border is not 0 or 1.

GL_INVALID_OPERATION is generated if type is one of GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE_3_3_2, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE_2_3_3_REV, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_6_5, or GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_6_5_REV and format is not GL_RGB.

GL_INVALID_OPERATION is generated if type is one of GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_4_4_4_4, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_4_4_4_4_REV, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_5_5_5_1, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT_1_5_5_5_REV, GL_UNSIGNED_INT_8_8_8_8, GL_UNSIGNED_INT_8_8_8_8_REV, GL_UNSIGNED_INT_10_10_10_2, or GL_UNSIGNED_INT_2_10_10_10_REV and format is neither GL_RGBA nor GL_BGRA.

GL_INVALID_OPERATION is generated if target is not GL_TEXTURE_2D or GL_PROXY_TEXTURE_2D and internalFormat is GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT16, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT24, or GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT32.

GL_INVALID_OPERATION is generated if format is GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT and internalFormat is not GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT16, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT24, or GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT32.

GL_INVALID_OPERATION is generated if internalFormat is GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT16, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT24, or GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT32, and format is not GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT.

GL_INVALID_OPERATION is generated if a non-zero buffer object name is bound to the GL_PIXEL_UNPACK_BUFFER target and the buffer object's data store is currently mapped.

GL_INVALID_OPERATION is generated if a non-zero buffer object name is bound to the GL_PIXEL_UNPACK_BUFFER target and the data would be unpacked from the buffer object such that the memory reads required would exceed the data store size.

GL_INVALID_OPERATION is generated if a non-zero buffer object name is bound to the GL_PIXEL_UNPACK_BUFFER target and data is not evenly divisible into the number of bytes needed to store in memory a datum indicated by type.

GL_INVALID_OPERATION is generated if glTexImage2D is executed between the execution of glBegin and the corresponding execution of glEnd.

Associated Gets

glGetTexImage

glIsEnabled with argument GL_TEXTURE_2D or GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP

glGet with argument GL_PIXEL_UNPACK_BUFFER_BINDING

See Also

glActiveTexture, glColorTable, glConvolutionFilter2D, glCopyPixels, glCopyTexImage1D, glCopyTexImage2D, glCopyTexSubImage1D, glCopyTexSubImage2D, glCopyTexSubImage3D, glDrawPixels, glMatrixMode, glPixelStore, glPixelTransfer, glSeparableFilter2D, glTexEnv, glTexGen, glTexImage1D, glTexImage3D, glTexSubImage1D, glTexSubImage2D, glTexSubImage3D, glTexParameter

Copyright

Copyright © 1991-2006 Silicon Graphics, Inc. This document is licensed under the SGI Free Software B License. For details, see http://oss.sgi.com/projects/FreeB/.