glFrustum — multiply the current matrix by a perspective matrix

C Specification

void glFrustumf(GLfloat left,
 GLfloat right,
 GLfloat bottom,
 GLfloat top,
 GLfloat near,
 GLfloat far);
void glFrustumx(GLfixed left,
 GLfixed right,
 GLfixed bottom,
 GLfixed top,
 GLfixed near,
 GLfixed far);


left, right

Specify the coordinates for the left and right vertical clipping planes.

bottom, top

Specify the coordinates for the bottom and top horizontal clipping planes.

near, far

Specify the distances to the near and far depth clipping planes. Both distances must be positive.


glFrustum describes a perspective matrix that produces a perspective projection. The current matrix (see glMatrixMode) is multiplied by this matrix and the result replaces the current matrix, as if glMultMatrix were called with the following matrix as its argument:

2 near right - left 0 A 0 0 2 near top - bottom B 0 0 0 C D 0 0 -1 0

A = right + left right - left

B = top + bottom top - bottom

C = - far + near far - near

D = - 2 far near far - near

Typically, the matrix mode is GL_PROJECTION, and (left, bottom, -near) and (right, top, -near) specify the points on the near clipping plane that are mapped to the lower left and upper right corners of the window, assuming that the eye is located at (0, 0, 0). -far specifies the location of the far clipping plane. Both near and far must be positive.

Use glPushMatrix and glPopMatrix to save and restore the current matrix stack.


Depth buffer precision is affected by the values specified for near and far. The greater the ratio of far to near is, the less effective the depth buffer will be at distinguishing between surfaces that are near each other. If

r = farnear

roughly log2(r) bits of depth buffer precision are lost. Because r approaches infinity as near approaches 0, near must never be set to 0.


GL_INVALID_VALUE is generated if near or far is not positive, or if left = right, or bottom = top, or near = far.

See Also

glOrtho, glMatrixMode, glMultMatrix, glPushMatrix, glViewport


Copyright © 2003-2004 Silicon Graphics, Inc. This document is licensed under the SGI Free Software B License. For details, see