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Welcome to the FAQ

What is OpenGL?

OpenGL stands for Open Graphics Library. It is an API for doing 3D graphics.
In more specific terms, it is an API that is used to "draw triangles on your scene". In this age of GPUs, it is about talking to the GPU so that it does the job of drawing. It does not deal with file formats. It does not open bmp, png and any image format. It does not open 3d object formats like obj, max, maya. It does not do animation. It does not handle keyboard, mouse and any input devices. It does not create a window, and so on.
All that stuff should be handled by an external library (GLUT is one example that is used for creating and destroying a window and handling mouse and keyboard).
GL has gone through several versions : 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.2.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0
At each versions, extensions of interest are introduced into the core. Usually, they are all ARB extensions.

Who maintains?

GL is created at SGI. Later on, the Architectural Review Board (ARB) controlled it which is a collection of major graphics companies.
Control was transfered to Khronos, which is another collection of major graphics companies. Their website is at http://www.khronos.org and they are specially known for OpenGL ES in which the ES means Embeded System (cellphones, PDA, consoles such as the Playstation 3 (PS3)) and other Open Spec APIs. You can find the list of companies at Khronos' website.

Open Source?

No, OpenGL doesn't have any source code. GL is a specification which can be found on this website. It describes the interface the programmer uses and expected behavior. OpenGL is Open Spec. Anyone can download the spec for free.
There is an implementation of GL that is Open Source and it is called Mesa3D http://www.mesa3d.org
It doesn't have the license to call itself OpenGL, but it does follow the spec very well.

Where can I download?

Just like the "Open Source?" section explains, GL is not a software product. GL is a specification.
Companies like nVidia and AMD/ATI use the spec to write their drivers, so OpenGL is in fact included in the drivers that they supply.
For laptop owners, you need to visit the manufacturer of your laptop and download the drivers from them.

Where can I download? #2

When you update your video driver, this is good enough for people who want to play games or run some application.
For programmers, installing drivers will not give you a gl.h file. It will not give you opengl32.lib. Those are files that come with your compiler (on Windows, your compiler might need opengl32.lib or perhaps opengl32.a).
Also, there are no updated gl.h and opengl32.lib file. These are stuck at GL 1.1 and will be forever. Read the Getting Started section to learn what you must do. http://www.opengl.org/wiki/index.php/Getting_started
Also, installing a video driver will not replace opengl32.dll. It is a system file and belongs to Windows. Only Microsoft may update it.
When you install a video driver, another file will be copied to your system (nvoglv32.dll in the case of nVidia) and the registry will be modified.
opengl32.dll will call into the real GL driver (nvoglv32.dll).

What platforms have GL?

Windows : 95 and above
Mac OSX : all versions
Linux : this depends on the distributions. Distros meant for desktop usage come with Gnome, KDE or some windows manager and OpenGL is either supplied as Mesa (software rasterizer) or they provide proper drivers.
FreeBSD : unknown
Cellphones, PDA, consoles such as the Playstation 3 (PS3) have OpenGL ES.
OpenGL ES is a subset of OpenGL. For example, it has VBO suppport but glBegin and glEnd have been removed.
Despite the fact that PS3 offers GL ES and Cg, most games don't use it. Instead, the companies use the more low level libraries available on that platform.

Which 3D API is better?

This question is asked by newcomers. They want to know whether they should chose OpenGL or DirectX.
It should be noted that GL can't be compared to DX since DX has additional features like DirectSound, DirectPlay, DirectInput, DirectMusic, DirectDraw, the DirectX Utility.
GL should be compared only to Direct3D.
If you need sound support, you can use FMod, Bass, OpenAL and others.
For a math library, there are many. For image loaders, there are many as well.
For a complete list, visit the Alternative Game Libraries forum at http://www.gamedev.net/community/forums

For D3D vs GL, there are many discussions on forums. This is one such example

In general, the more you know, the better, so it is recommended that you start with one or the other. Learning the other later on will be easy.

glTranslate, glRotate, glScale

Are these hardware accelerated?
No, there are no known GPUs that execute this. The driver computes the matrix on the CPU and uploads it to the GPU.
All the other matrix operations are done on the CPU as well : glPushMatrix, glPopMatrix, glLoadIdentity, glFrustum, glOrtho.
This is the reason why these functions are considered deprecated in GL 3.0. You should have your own math library, build your own matrix, upload your matrix to the shader.

Fixed function and modern GPUs

Modern GPUs no longer support fixed function. Everything is done with shaders. In order to preserve compatibility, the GL driver generates a shader that simulates the fixed function. It is recommended that all new modern programs use shaders. New users need not learn fixed function related operations of GL such as glLight, glMaterial, glTexEnv and many others.

How to render in pixel space

There are 2 ways to do it 1. Setup a certain projection matrix

 glOrtho(0.0, WindowWidth, 0.0, WindowHeight, -1.0, 1.0);
 //Setup modelview to identity if you don't need GL to move around objects for you

Notice that y axis goes from bottom to top because of the glOrtho call. You can swap bottom and top parameters if you want y to go from top to bottom. make sure you render your polygons in the right order so that GL doesn't cull them or just call glDisable(GL_CULL_FACE).

2. The second method is to use glWindowPos which ignores the projection and modelview matrices.
You can use glWindowPos2f or glWindowPos3f so perhaps the z component doesn't matter for you and you can set it to 0.0.
You can try glWindowPos2i, glWindowPos3i, glWindowPos2d, glWindowPos3d, glWindowPos2s, glWindowPos3s but that depends on what format the GPU supports. http://www.opengl.org/wiki/index.php/Common_Mistakes#Unsupported_formats_.231
glWindowPos basically changes the raster position. Then you would need to call glBitmap or glDrawPixels to render. Keep in mind that glBitmap or glDrawPixels are not recommended for rendering. It's always best to render polygons since that's what GPUs prefer.

Multi indexed rendering

Basically, no it is not possible. Only one index array is accepted. Keep reeding.
So you want to render something with vertex arrays or with a VBO.
You would need to make calls to glVertexPointer, glNormalPointer, ... and finally render with glDrawArrays, glDrawElements or glDrawRangeElements.
glDrawElements or glDrawRangeElements take a single index array.
Some formats like OBJ use an index list for each vertex attributes, example

 v 1.52284 39.3701 1.01523
 v 36.7365 17.6068 1.01523
 v 12.4045 17.6068 -32.475
 and so on ...
 n 0.137265 0.985501 -0.0997287
 n 0.894427 0.447214 -8.16501e-08
 n 0.276393 0.447214 -0.850651
 and so on ...
 t 0.6 1
 t 0.5 0.647584
 t 0.7 0.647584
 and so on ...
 f 102//102//102 84//84//84 158//158//158 
 f 158//158//158 84//84//84 83//83//83 
 f 158//158//158 83//83//83 159//159//159 
 and so on ...

The lines that start with an f are the faces. As you can see, each vertex has 3 index, one for vertex, normal, texcoord.
The problem is that the OBJ format is ancient pre-GPU junk.
GPUs prefer 1 index list. They also prefer vertex, normal, texcoord to be interleaved rather than be in their own array. They prefer floating point format most of the time for vertex, normals, etc so that part the OBJ format got right. Faces should be in unsigned short format.
You should use a more modern format like .X or your own format.

2 component textures

Formats such as GL_LUMINANCE4_ALPHA4, GL_LUMINANCE6_ALPHA2, GL_LUMINANCE8_ALPHA8, GL_LUMINANCE12_ALPHA4, GL_LUMINANCE12_ALPHA12, GL_LUMINANCE16_ALPHA16 are 2 component formats. The only way to know if the GPU actually supports it is to read the IHV manuals. For example, nVidia has a doc called nv_ogl_texture_formats.pdf at http://developer.nvidia.com that says that Gf6 supports GL_LUMINANCE16_ALPHA16.
Also, the GPU should be able to render to them in case FBO is supported.
There are other formats special to nVidia : GL_SIGNED_LUMINANCE8_ALPHA8, GL_HILO8, GL_HILO16, GL_FLOAT_RG16, GL_FLOAT_RG32.
Those tokens probably needs a _NV postfix and they should be defined in glext.h
Also visit http://www.opengl.org/registry to see which extensions define them.

Immediate mode, display lists, vertex arrays, VBO

Immediate mode means glBegin(), glVertex(), glEnd() and the related calls like glTexCoord, glNormal, glColor.
This method is outdated and slow.
Display lists and vertex arrays are also outdated now that VBO is available, since 2000.
There is very little reason to not use VBOs for everything however you should use them correctly in order to get good performance.


This returns a string which may look something like "2.0.6914 WinXP SSE/SSE2/SSE3/3DNow!"
2.0 is the actual version number of GL supported. All the rest depends on what information the IHV wants to convey and is not part of the GL standard. 6914 would be the driver version. WinXP is the OS. SSE/SSE2/SSE3/3DNow! are CPU features that the driver can use in case it runs in software mode.
In glhlib http://www.geocities.com/vmelkon/glhlibrary.html
glhGetIntegerv(GLH_OPENGL_VERSION, version) can return the major and minor version. That is to say, version[0] would be an integer (2) and version[1] is an integer (0). This is a utility library similar to GLU to make programming easier.
Also note that at times glGetString(GL_VERSION) returns also the bus type used such as AGP or PCI or PCIEx.