Shader Compilation

From OpenGL Wiki
(Redirected from Separate Program)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Shader Compilation is the term used to describe the process by which OpenGL Shading Language scripts are loaded into OpenGL to be used as shaders. OpenGL has three ways to compile shader text into usable OpenGL objects. All of these forms of compilation produce a Program Object.

Note: This article contains references to OpenGL 4.x features, such as tessellation shaders and Compute Shaders. If you are using OpenGL 3.x, you can ignore such references.

Shader and program objects

A Program Object can contain the executable code for all of the Shader stages, such that all that is needed to render is to bind one program object. Building programs that contain multiple shader stages requires a two-stage compilation process.

This two-stage compilation process mirrors the standard compile/link setup for C and C++ source code. C/C++ text is first fed through a compiler, thus producing an object file. To get the executable code, one or more object files must be linked together.

With this method of program creation, shader text is first fed through a compiler, thus producing a shader object. To get the executable program object, one or more shader objects must be linked together.

Shader object compilation

The first step is to create shader objects for each shader that you intend to use and compile them. To create a shader object, you call this function:

GLuint glCreateShader(GLenum shaderType​);

This creates an empty shader object for the shader stage given by given shaderType​. The shader type must be one of GL_VERTEX_SHADER, GL_TESS_CONTROL_SHADER, GL_TESS_EVALUATION_SHADER, GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER, GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER, or GL_COMPUTE_SHADER. Note that the control and evaluation shaders require GL 4.0 (or ARB_tessellation_shader), and the compute shader requires GL 4.3 (or ARB_compute_shader).

Once you have a shader object, you will need to give it the actual text string representing the GLSL source code. That is done via this function:

void glShaderSource(GLuint shader​, GLsizei count​, const GLchar **string​, const GLint *length​);

This function takes the array of strings, given by string​ and stores it into shader​. Any previously stored strings are removed. count​ is the number of individual strings. OpenGL will copy these strings into internal memory.

When the shader is compiled, it will be compiled as if all of the given strings were concatenated end-to-end. This makes it easy for the user to load most of a shader from a file, but to have a standardized preamble that is prepended to some group of shaders.

The length​ can be either NULL or an array of count​ integers. These are the lengths of the corresponding strings in the string​ array. This allows you to use non-NULL-terminated strings. If you pass NULL, then OpenGL will assume all of the strings are NULL-terminated and will therefore compute the length in the usual way.

Once shader strings have been set into a shader object, it can be compiled with this function:

void glCompileShader(GLuint shader​);

It compiles the given shader.

Shader error handling

Compilation may or may not succeed. Shader compilation failure is not an OpenGL Error; you need to check for it specifically. This is done with a particular call to glGetShaderiv:

GLint success = 0;
glGetShaderiv(shader, GL_COMPILE_STATUS, &success);

If success​ is GL_FALSE, then the most recent compilation failed. Otherwise, it succeeded.

Shader compilation is pass/fail, but it is often useful to know why. This, like in most languages, is provided as text messages. OpenGL allows you to query a log containing this information. First, you must use glGetShaderiv to query the log's length:

GLint logSize = 0;
glGetShaderiv(shader, GL_INFO_LOG_LENGTH, &logSize);

This tells you how many bytes to allocate; the length includes the NULL terminator. Once you have the length and have allocated sufficient memory, you can use this function to get the log:

void glGetShaderInfoLog(GLuint shader​, GLsizei maxLength​, GLsizei *length​, GLchar *infoLog​);

maxLength​ is the size of infoLog​; this tells OpenGL how many bytes at maximum it will write into infoLog​. length​ is a return value, specifying how many bytes it actually wrote into infoLog​; you may pass NULL if you don't care.

V · E

Shader compilation error checking.

GLuint shader = glCreateShader(...);

// Get strings for glShaderSource.
glShaderSource(shader, ...);


GLint isCompiled = 0;
glGetShaderiv(shader, GL_COMPILE_STATUS, &isCompiled);
if(isCompiled == GL_FALSE)
	GLint maxLength = 0;
	glGetShaderiv(shader, GL_INFO_LOG_LENGTH, &maxLength);

	// The maxLength includes the NULL character
	std::vector<GLchar> errorLog(maxLength);
	glGetShaderInfoLog(shader, maxLength, &maxLength, &errorLog[0]);

	// Provide the infolog in whatever manor you deem best.
	// Exit with failure.
	glDeleteShader(shader); // Don't leak the shader.

// Shader compilation is successful.

Program setup

Once you have successfully compiled the shader objects of interest, you can link them into a program. This begins by creating a program object via this command:

GLuint glCreateProgram();

The function takes no parameters.

After creating a program, the shader objects you wish to link to it must be attached to the program. This is done via this function:

void glAttachShader(GLuint program​, GLuint shader​);

This can be called multiple times with different shader​ objects.

Note: It is possible to attach multiple shader objects for the same shader stage to a program. This is perfectly legal. When linking them, all of the code will be combined. However, only one of those shader objects can have a main function. Linking like this will work very much like linking multiple object files in a C/C++ program: one .cpp file can call code in another .cpp file if it has forward declarations of functions. So you can have "libraries" of functions that individual shaders can choose to use.
Recommendation: That being said, while this power is available, it is best not to use it. It usually works, but because most OpenGL applications don't do this, it doesn't get as thoroughly tested as other parts of the OpenGL API. So you're likely to run into more driver bugs this way. Generally stick to having one shader object per shader stage.

Before linking

A number of parameters can be set up that will affect the linking process. This generally involves interfaces with the program. These include:

You cannot change these values after linking; if you don't set them before linking, you can't set them at all.

Program linking

Linking can fail for many reasons, including but not limited to:

Program link failure can be detected and responded to, in a similar way to shader compilation failure.

Once the program has been successfully linked, it can be used.

Linking and variables

Normally, shader objects for different shader stages don't interact. Each shader stage's code is separate from others. They have their own global variables, their own functions, etc.

This is not the case entirely. Certain definitions are considered shared between shader stages. Specifically, these include uniforms, buffer variables, and buffer-backed interface blocks.

If one of these is defined in one stage, another stage can define the same object with the same name and the exact same definition. If this happens, then there will only be one uniform/buffer variable/interface block visible from the introspection API. So shader stages in the same program can share uniform variables, allowing the same value to be set into both stages with one glUniform call.

For this to work however, the definitions must be exactly the same. This includes the order of the members, any user-defined data structures they use, array counts, everything. If two definitions in different stages have the same name, but different definitions, then there will be a linker error.


After linking (whether successfully or not), it is a good idea to detach all shader objects from the program. This is done via this function:

 void glDetachShader(GLuint program​, GLuint shader​);

shader​ must have been previously attached to program​.

If you do not intend to use this particular shader object in the linking of another program, you may delete it. This is done via glDeleteShader. Note that the deletion of a shader is deferred until the shader object is no longer attached to a program. Therefore, it is a good idea to detach shaders after linking.


V · E

Full compile/link of a Vertex and Fragment Shader.

// Read our shaders into the appropriate buffers
std::string vertexSource = // Get source code for vertex shader.
std::string fragmentSource = // Get source code for fragment shader.

// Create an empty vertex shader handle
GLuint vertexShader = glCreateShader(GL_VERTEX_SHADER);

// Send the vertex shader source code to GL
// Note that std::string's .c_str is NULL character terminated.
const GLchar *source = (const GLchar *)vertexSource.c_str();
glShaderSource(vertexShader, 1, &source, 0);

// Compile the vertex shader

GLint isCompiled = 0;
glGetShaderiv(vertexShader, GL_COMPILE_STATUS, &isCompiled);
if(isCompiled == GL_FALSE)
	GLint maxLength = 0;
	glGetShaderiv(vertexShader, GL_INFO_LOG_LENGTH, &maxLength);

	// The maxLength includes the NULL character
	std::vector<GLchar> infoLog(maxLength);
	glGetShaderInfoLog(vertexShader, maxLength, &maxLength, &infoLog[0]);
	// We don't need the shader anymore.

	// Use the infoLog as you see fit.
	// In this simple program, we'll just leave

// Create an empty fragment shader handle
GLuint fragmentShader = glCreateShader(GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER);

// Send the fragment shader source code to GL
// Note that std::string's .c_str is NULL character terminated.
source = (const GLchar *)fragmentSource.c_str();
glShaderSource(fragmentShader, 1, &source, 0);

// Compile the fragment shader

glGetShaderiv(fragmentShader, GL_COMPILE_STATUS, &isCompiled);
if (isCompiled == GL_FALSE)
	GLint maxLength = 0;
	glGetShaderiv(fragmentShader, GL_INFO_LOG_LENGTH, &maxLength);

	// The maxLength includes the NULL character
	std::vector<GLchar> infoLog(maxLength);
	glGetShaderInfoLog(fragmentShader, maxLength, &maxLength, &infoLog[0]);
	// We don't need the shader anymore.
	// Either of them. Don't leak shaders.

	// Use the infoLog as you see fit.
	// In this simple program, we'll just leave

// Vertex and fragment shaders are successfully compiled.
// Now time to link them together into a program.
// Get a program object.
GLuint program = glCreateProgram();

// Attach our shaders to our program
glAttachShader(program, vertexShader);
glAttachShader(program, fragmentShader);

// Link our program

// Note the different functions here: glGetProgram* instead of glGetShader*.
GLint isLinked = 0;
glGetProgramiv(program, GL_LINK_STATUS, (int *)&isLinked);
if (isLinked == GL_FALSE)
	GLint maxLength = 0;
	glGetProgramiv(program, GL_INFO_LOG_LENGTH, &maxLength);

	// The maxLength includes the NULL character
	std::vector<GLchar> infoLog(maxLength);
	glGetProgramInfoLog(program, maxLength, &maxLength, &infoLog[0]);
	// We don't need the program anymore.
	// Don't leak shaders either.

	// Use the infoLog as you see fit.
	// In this simple program, we'll just leave

// Always detach shaders after a successful link.
glDetachShader(program, vertexShader);
glDetachShader(program, fragmentShader);

Separate programs

Separate Shader Stages
Core in version 4.6
Core since version 4.1
Core ARB extension ARB_separate_shader_objects

A program object can contain the code for multiple shader stages. The glUseProgram function only takes a single program, so you can only use a single program at a time for rendering. Therefore, you cannot mix-and-match code for different shader stages dynamically post-linking. Shader objects are not programs; they only hold compiled fragments of code, not fully useful programs.

There is a way to do this. This involves two alterations to the model presented above. The first is how the program is created; the second is in how it gets used.

To allow the use of multiple programs, where each program only provides some of the shader stage code, we must first create our programs specially. To signal that a program object is intended to be used with this separate program model, we must set a parameter on the program before linking. This is done as follows:

glProgramParameter(program, GL_PROGRAM_SEPARABLE, GL_TRUE);
Note: Again, this must done be before the program is linked.

There is an alternative method for creating separable programs. This represents a common use case: creating a program from a single set of shader source which provides the code for a single shader stage. The function to do this is:

GLuint glCreateShaderProgramv(GLenum type​, GLsizei count​, const char **strings​);

This works exactly as if you took count​ and strings​ strings, created a shader object from them of the type​ shader type, and then linked that shader object into a program with the GL_PROGRAM_SEPARABLE parameter. And then detaching and deleting the shader object.

This process can fail, just as compilation or linking can fail. The program infolog can thus contain compile errors as well as linking errors.

Note: glCreateShaderProgramv will return either the name of a program object or zero - independent of which errors might occur during shader compilation or linkage! A return value of zero simply states that either the shader object or program object could not be created. If a non-zero value is returned, you will still need to check the program info logs to make sure compilation and linkage succeeded! Also, the function itself may generate an error under certain conditions which will also result in zero being returned.
Warning: When linking shaders with separable programs, your shaders must redeclare the gl_PerVertex interface block if you attempt to use any of the variables defined within it.

Separable programs are allowed to have shaders from more than one stage linked into them. While it is best to only use shaders from one stage (since the main point of using separable programs is the ability to mix-and-match freely), you do not have to. However, if two stages are linked together in the same program, you will be unable to insert another program between those two stages, due to pipeline validation rules.

Note: glCreateShaderProgramv is a very useful tool, but it does have one major drawback. You cannot set any pre-linking parameters into the resulting program. Most pre-link parameters can be set directly in the shader, but transform feedback parameters could not be set in shaders for several versions since separate programs were allowed. This ability was eventually added to core GL, but unless you are using OpenGL 4.4 or ARB_enhanced_layouts, if you need separate programs and transform feedback, you will have to use the usual two-stage shader compilation process.

Program pipelines

Creating a separable program is just the first step. The other thing you must do is change how the program is used.

To use multiple separable programs, they must first be assembled into an OpenGL Object type called a program pipeline. Unlike program or shader objects, these follow the standard OpenGL Object mode. Therefore, there is a glGenProgramPipelines function to create new pipeline names, a glDeleteProgramPipelines to delete them, and a glBindProgramPipeline to bind it to the context. Program pipeline objects do not have targets, so the last function only takes the pipeline to be bound.

Similar to Sampler Objects, program pipeline objects should only be bound when you intend to render with them (or set uniforms through them, as described below). The only state in program pipeline objects are the list of programs that contain the code for the various shader stages. This state is set by this function:

void glUseProgramStages(GLuint pipeline​, GLbitfield stages​, GLuint program​);

The given pipeline​ will get the shader code for the shader stages defined by the bitfield stages​ from the given program​. The stages​ bitfield determines which shader stages in program​ will provide code for those shader stages in the pipeline. These bits can be a combination of GL_VERTEX_SHADER_BIT, GL_TESS_CONTROL_SHADER_BIT, GL_TESS_EVALUATION_SHADER_BIT, GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER_BIT, GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER_BIT and GL_COMPUTE_SHADER_BIT. The bitfield can also be GL_ALL_SHADER_BITS, which is equivalent to all of the above. If the program​ has an active code for each stage mentioned in stages​, then that code will be used by the pipeline. If program​ is 0, then the given stages are cleared from the pipeline.

program​ must either be 0 or a separable program.

Program pipeline objects are container objects. As such, they cannot be shared across multiple OpenGL contexts.


Once you have a functioning program pipeline with all of the separate stages you would like to use, you can render with it. To do that, you must first bind the program pipeline with glBindProgramPipeline.

Warning: glUseProgram overrides glBindProgramPipeline. That is, if you have a program in use and a program pipeline bound, all rendering will use the program that is in use, not the pipeline programs. So make sure that glUseProgram(0) has been called.

After binding a pipeline, you can then render with those stages as normal, or dispatch compute work. Program pipelines can also be validated.

Uniforms and pipelines

Recommendation: The following explains a highly convoluted way to use glBindProgramPipeline to allow the user to set uniform state for one of the programs within a pipeline. You are strongly advised to ignore this section. Instead, when writing new code, use glProgramUniform to set uniforms directly into programs without having to bind or use the program. Only use the following mechanism if you absolutely must remain backwards compatible with some functions that set uniforms on a program that is bound to the context.

glUniform changes uniform state on the currently used program. However, with separate programs and program pipelines, the definition of "currently used program" is much more complicated. It works as follows.

OpenGL first checks the program currently set by glUseProgram (you can bind separable programs with this function). If a program is bound through this function, then that is the currently used program. If no program is set by this function (ie: if you execute glUseProgram(0)), then the next step occurs.

The currently bound program pipeline is checked. Program pipelines have the concept of an active program. The active program of a program pipeline object is the "currently used program" (again, only if a program isn't in use by glUseProgram).

The active program for a pipeline is set by this function:

void glActiveShaderProgram(GLuint pipeline​, GLuint program​);

program​ must be a valid, successfully linked program object. It may not be zero; you cannot unset an active program once you set it onto the pipeline object.

Note: Silly though it may seem, program​ does not have to be attached to pipeline​ for this to work. A pipeline can have a completely unrelated program as its active program.

Examples of separate programs

The following examples depict multiple possible scenarios when using separable programs. The first example aims at showing the simplicity inherent in using glCreateShaderProgramv. The second shows how to deal with multi-stage programs and doing some pre-linking work not possible when creating single-stage, separable programs.

Note: For simplicity, the following code assumes that source strings result in successful compilation and linking and all resources involved are created successfully. However, it is a very good idea to do some error checking in real code and get the shader/program/pipeline logs! As a minimum, you should do as shown in the previous example for monolithic prorams.

Two separate programs for vertex and fragment shading

V · E

Creating two separable programs, one with a vertex shader and one with a fragment shader.

// Create two separable program objects from a 
// single source string respectively (vertSrc and fragSrc)
GLuint vertProg = glCreateShaderProgramv(GL_VERTEX_SHADER  , 1, &vertSrc);
GLuint fragProg = glCreateShaderProgramv(GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER, 1, &fragSrc);


// Generate a program pipeline and attach the programs to their respective stages
glGenProgramPipelines(1, &pipeline);
glUseProgramStages(pipeline, GL_VERTEX_SHADER_BIT  , vertProg);
glUseProgramStages(pipeline, GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER_BIT, fragProg);

// Query and set any uniforms
GLint colorLoc = glGetUniformLocation(fragProg, "Color");
glProgramUniform4f(fragProg, colorLoc, 1.f, 0.f, 0.f, 1.f);

Mixing a single- and a multi-stage program

V · E

Creates a separate program, where some of the stages are directly linked together.

// Create two programs. One with just the vertex shader, and 
// one with both geometry and fragment stages.
GLuint vertexProgram   = glCreateProgram();
GLuint geomFragProgram = glCreateProgram();

// Declare that programs are separable - this is crucial!
glProgramParameteri(vertexProgram  , GL_PROGRAM_SEPARABLE, GL_TRUE);
glProgramParameteri(geomFragProgram, GL_PROGRAM_SEPARABLE, GL_TRUE);

// Generate and compile shader objects, as normal.
GLuint vertShader  = glCreateShader(GL_VERTEX_SHADER);
GLuint geomShader  = glCreateShader(GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER);
GLuint fragShader  = glCreateShader(GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER);

glShaderSource(vertShader, 1, &vertSrc, NULL);
glShaderSource(geomShader, 1, &geomSrc, NULL);
glShaderSource(fragShader, 1, &fragSrc, NULL);


// Attach the shaders to their respective programs
glAttachShader(vertexProgram  , vertShader);
glAttachShader(geomFragProgram, geomShader);
glAttachShader(geomFragProgram, fragShader);

// Perform any pre-linking steps.
glBindAttribLocation(vertexProgram    , 0, "Position");
glBindFragDataLocation(geomFragProgram, 0, "FragColor");

// Link the programs

// Detach and delete the shader objects
glDetachShader(vertexProgram, vertShader);

glDetachShader(geomFragProgram, geomShader);
glDetachShader(geomFragProgram, fragShader);

// Generate a program pipeline
glGenProgramPipelines(1, &pipeline);

// Attach the first program to the vertex stage, and the second program
// to the geometry and fragment stages
glUseProgramStages(pipeline, GL_VERTEX_SHADER_BIT, vertexProgram);
glUseProgramStages(pipeline, GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER_BIT | GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER_BIT, geomFragProgram);

Binary upload

Program Binary
Core in version 4.6
Core since version 4.1
Core ARB extension ARB_get_program_binary

Compiling and linking shaders, regardless of which method you use, can take a long time. The more shaders you have, the longer this process takes. It is often useful to be able to cache the result of program linking, so that this cached program can be reloaded much faster.

This is done via a set of calls. Given a successfully linked program, the user can fetch a block of binary data, in a certain format, that represents this program. The first step of this process is to get the length of this data by calling glGetProgram with GL_PROGRAM_BINARY_LENGTH on the program. Armed with this length, the actual binary can be obtained with this function:

void glGetProgramBinary(GLuint program​, GLsizei bufsize​, GLsizei *length​, GLenum *binaryFormat​, void *binary​);

bufsize​ is the maximum number of bytes available in binary​. length​ is an output value that states how many bytes were copied into binary​; it is optional and may be NULL. binaryFormat​ is an output value that specifies the format of the binary data. It is not optional, and it must be stored alongside the actual binary data.

Given the format and the binary data, a new program object can be created with this binary data. This is done via this function:

void glProgramBinary(GLuint program​, GLenum binaryFormat​, const void *binary​, GLsizei length​);

This function will upload the binary​ data (who's length​ is as given), which is in the given binaryFormat​, into the program​. If the upload is successful, then program​ has effectively had a successful link call performed on it.

This function can fail if binaryFormat​ is not a supported format. You can query the allowed formats with glGetIntegerv, using GL_NUM_PROGRAM_BINARY_FORMATS to get the count, and GL_PROGRAM_BINARY_FORMATS to get the formats. It can also fail for other reasons; you cannot guarantee that a binary can be loaded.

State of the program

Program objects contain certain state. The program binary only encapsulates the state of the program at the moment linking was successful. This means that all uniforms are reset to their default values (either specified in-shader or 0). Vertex attributes and fragment shader outputs will have the values assigned, as well as transform feedback data, interface block bindings, and so forth.

If glProgramBinary is successful, it should result in a program object that is identical to the original program object as it was immediately after linking.

If the original program was separable, then the program built from the binary will also be separable. And vice-versa.

Binary limitations

Program binary formats are not intended to be transmitted. It is not reasonable to expect different hardware vendors to accept the same binary formats. It is not reasonable to expect different hardware from the same vendor to accept the same binary formats.

Indeed, you cannot expect the cached version to work even on the same machine. Driver updates between when the data was cached and when it is reloaded can change the acceptable binary formats. Therefore, glProgramBinary can fail frequently. If you use this functionality, you must have a fallback for creating your shaders if the binary is rejected.

SPIR-V compilation

Core in version 4.6
Core since version 4.6
Core ARB extension ARB_spirv_extensions
ARB extension ARB_gl_spirv
V · E

SPIR-V's compilation model looks similar to that of GLSL, but it does have some unique characteristics.

As with GLSL, SPIR-V makes use of shader and program objects. Because SPIR-V is a binary format, SPIR-V shaders are loaded into shader objects via the use of the shader binary API:

void glShaderBinary(GLsizei count​, const GLuint *shaders​, GLenum binaryFormat​, const void *binary​, GLsizei length​);

shaders​ is an array of count​ length of previously created shader objects that the SPIR-V data will be loaded into. So this function can load the same SPIR-V source code into multiple shader objects.

SPIR-V has a specific binaryFormat​: the enumerator GL_SHADER_BINARY_FORMAT_SPIR_V. The binary​ is the loaded SPIR-V itself, with a byte length of length​. This must include the entire SPIR-V, as defined by the specification, including header information.

The use of this function will replace the shaders specified by previous calls to glShaderSource or glShaderBinary. Loading a non-SPIR-V binary or loading GLSL source strings into the program will make it no longer contain SPIR-V code.

While a shader object has a SPIR-V binary loaded into it, the object becomes slightly different. glGetShaderiv(shader, GL_SPIR_V_BINARY) will return GL_TRUE.

Entry points and specialization

SPIR-V is similar to GLSL, but it has some differences. Two differences are particularly relevant.

  1. A single SPIR-V file can have function entry-points for multiple shader stages, even of different types.
  2. SPIR-V has the concept of "specialization constants": parameters which the user can provide before the SPIR-V is compiled into its final form.

Before a SPIR-V shader object can be used, you must specify which entry-point to use and provide values for any specialization constants used by that entry-point. This is done through a single function:

void glSpecializeShader(GLuint shader​, const GLchar *pEntryPoint​, GLuint numSpecializationConstants​, const GLuint *pConstantIndex​, const GLuint *pConstantValue​);

pEntryPoint​ is the string name of the entry-point that this SPIR-V shader object will use. pConstantIndex​ and pConstantValue​ are arrays containing the index of each specialization constant and the corresponding values that will be used. These arrays are numSpecializationConstants​ in length. Specialization constants not referenced by pConstantIndex​ use the default values specified in the SPIR-V shader.

Specializing a SPIR-V shader is analogous to compiling a GLSL shader. So if this function completes successfully, the shader object's compile status is GL_TRUE. If specialization fails, then the shader infolog has information explaining why and an OpenGL Error is generated.

pEntryPoint​ must name a valid entry point. Also, the entry point's "execution model" (SPIR-V speak for "Shader Stage") must match the stage the shader object was created with. Specialization can also fail if pConstantIndex​ references a specialization constant index that the SPIR-V binary does not use. If specialization fails, the shader's info log is updated appropriately.

Once specialized, SPIR-V shaders cannot be re-specialized. However, you can reload the SPIR-V binary data into them, which will allow them to be specialized again.

Linking SPIR-V

SPIR-V shader objects that have been specialized can be used to link programs (separable or otherwise). If you link multiple shader objects in the same program, then either all of them must be SPIR-V shaders or none of them may be SPIR-V shaders. You cannot link SPIR-V to non-SPIR-V shaders in a program.

Also, note that SPIR-V shaders must have an entry-point. So SPIR-V modules for the same stage cannot be linked together. Each SPIR-V shader object must provide all of the code for its module.

You can use separable programs built from SPIR-V shaders in the same pipeline object as non-SPIR-V shaders.

Error handling

Program linking can fail for various reasons. Linking happens when creating a separate program as well as when loading a program binary into a program object. All of these processes can fail.

Note: Using glCreateShaderProgram is considered equivalent to both a shader compilation and a program linking operation. Since it performs both at the same time, compiler or linker errors can be encountered. However, since this function only returns a program object, compiler-type errors will be reported as linker errors through the following API.

To determine if linking has failed, call glGetProgramiv:

GLint isLinked = 0;
glGetProgramiv(program, GL_LINK_STATUS, &isLinked);

If isLinked is GL_FALSE (aka: zero), then the most recent linking operation on that program failed (or the program has never been linked). Otherwise it succeeded.

Program linking is pass/fail, but it is often useful to know why it failed. Like in most languages, linker errors are provided as text messages. OpenGL allows you to query a log containing these errors. To do so, you must first query the log's length using glGetProgramiv again:

GLint maxLength = 0;
glGetProgramiv(program, GL_INFO_LOG_LENGTH, &maxLength);

This tells you how many bytes to allocate; the length includes the NULL terminator. Once you have the length and have allocated sufficient memory, you can use this function to get the log:

void glGetProgramInfoLog(GLuint program​, GLsizei maxLength​, GLsizei *length​, GLchar *infoLog​);

maxLength​ is the size of infoLog​; this tells OpenGL how many bytes at maximum it can write into infoLog​. length​ is a return value, specifying how many bytes it actually wrote into infoLog​; you may pass NULL if you don't care.

V · E

Program Linking error checking.

GLuint program = glCreateProgram();

// Attach shaders as necessary.
glAttachShader(program, ...);

// Link the program.

GLint isLinked = 0;
glGetProgramiv(program, GL_LINK_STATUS, &isLinked);
if (isLinked == GL_FALSE)
	GLint maxLength = 0;
	glGetProgramiv(program, GL_INFO_LOG_LENGTH, &maxLength);

	// The maxLength includes the NULL character
	std::vector<GLchar> infoLog(maxLength);
	glGetProgramInfoLog(program, maxLength, &maxLength, &infoLog[0]);

	// The program is useless now. So delete it.

	// Provide the infolog in whatever manner you deem best.
	// Exit with failure.

Interface matching

Shaders in stages have inputs and outputs. Most values output by shaders directly feed subsequent shader stage input variables. There are rules for how these must match.

When linking multiple shader stages together, these rules are checked at program linking time. Therefore, mismatching interfaces between stages are linker errors. However, the interface between separable programs in a pipeline can only be checked at runtime, when the pipeline is used.

Directly linking multiple shader stages together requires that all outputs from one stage are consumed by inputs from the next active stage and vice versa. Failure to do this results in a linker error. However, separable programs do not have exactly match between the separate programs. The results of an inexact match are described below.

Outputs and inputs can either be in an Interface Block or as loose output/input variables. The rules for matching differ between them.

An output interface block matches an input interface block if:

  • The interface block names match. Remember: the block name is different from the instance name. The block name is the one at the top; the instance name is the one at the bottom. Instance names can be different between stages.
  • The output block has the same members as the input block. This means that each block contains members that:
    • Are declared in the same order.
    • Have the same names.
    • Have types which match exactly. If they are arrays, the element counts must match.
    • Have type qualifiers which match, as described below.

For loose variables, an output matches with an input if:

  • The two variables represent the same interface. This is determined by checking the following, in order (the first overrides the second):
    • If both of the variables are given a layout(location) setting that is equivalent.
    • If both variables have the same name (and neither variable has a layout(location) qualifier).
  • The two variables have types which match (separate program allow for some slight mismatching). If they are arrays, the element counts must match.
  • Have type qualifiers which match, as described below.

Qualifier matching

Type qualifiers between output variables in one stage and input variables with the same name in the consuming stage must match. These matches are required to be exact, except for these cases:

All other qualifiers must match for variables with the same names.

Array interfaces and shader stages

Certain shader stages automatically aggregate their inputs or outputs into arrays. For example, Geometry Shaders take an array of elements, where each array index represents a vertex. Tessellation Control Shaders take an array of inputs and writes to arrays of outputs, with each index representing a vertex.

For the purpose of determining an interface match, such aggregate inputs or outputs are considered not to be arrays (or if the interface variable is an array that itself contains arrays, the first array dimention is ignored). patch qualified outputs/inputs for Tessellation Control/Evaluation Shaders are not aggregated in arrays, so they don't count here. If you make a patch variable that is an array, the array index must match between the control and evaluation shaders.

Separate program matching

Separate programs are allowed to have matches that are not exact (ie: where every output is not consumed by every input).

However, a mismatch can only lead to defined behavior if loose variables are used and those variables use layout(location) qualifiers. All other input variables will have undefined values on an non-exact match. This includes input variables that match under the regular rules that don't use the layout(location) qualifier. If the match is not exact, then only those matching using layout(location) qualifiers will work.


//Output shader
out vec4 one;
out vec3 two;
layout(location = 1) out vec3 three;
layout(location = 2) out vec4 four;
out OutBlock
  vec4 five;

//Input shader 1
layout(location = 1) in vec3 val1; //Matches with `three`.
in ivec4 one; //Mismatch due to type. UNDEFINED VALUE.
in vec3 two; //UNDEFINED VALUE, due to other mismatch.
in OutBlock
  vec4 five; //Also UNDEFINED VALUE, due to other mismatch.

Also, when using layout(location) qualifiers, the types do not have to exactly match. If the output is a vector type that has more components than the corresponding input (again, correspondence by layout(location) rather than name), and the two types match in basic component type (ivec3 has the basic int type), and that basic type is not double, then the two are considered to match. The extra components written by the output are ignored. So it is possible for the following to match:

//output shader
layout(location = 5) out vec4 vals;

//input shader
layout(location = 5) in float foo; //Gets the .x component from `vals`


A program object, or program pipeline object, must be valid to be used in rendering operations. As much of this validity is checked at link-time as possible; however, some of it references the current OpenGL state. Therefore, some of it must be tested at runtime. For program pipelines, some validity that would have been checked at link-time for non-separable programs (such as interface matching) must be checked at runtime.

The validity of a program or pipeline object can be checked at any time using these functions:

Here are the rules of program object validation:

Pipeline validation

Pipeline object validation must also check the following: