glTF Overview


Runtime 3D Asset Delivery

glTF™ (GL Transmission Format) is a royalty-free specification for the efficient transmission and loading of 3D scenes and models by applications. glTF minimizes both the size of 3D assets, and the runtime processing needed to unpack and use those assets. glTF defines an extensible, common publishing format for 3D content tools and services that streamlines authoring workflows and enables interoperable use of content across the industry.

Participate in the glTF Community

glTF is run as an open project by Khronos. The specification, supporting materials and source code is developed and made freely available on GitHub.

Everyone is welcome to contribute to the code and provide feedback about the specification; you do not have to be a Khronos member to participate in the glTF community. Visit the "Ways to contribute to glTF" page in main glTF project on GitHub.

glTF Demo

‘Project “Polly” was produced to introduce all new features from glTF 2.0: Skinning, morphing and Physically Based materials are used in the demo. ‘Poly’ was developed using Blender and is used to test its glTF 2.0 exporter. The original Blender file will be provided to the glTF community for free!’

glTF is the "JPEG of 3D"

glTF is the JPEG of 3D


glTF 2.0 Scene Description Structure

The glTF Structure


glTF 2.0 Scalable, Portable PBR

glTF Extensions

Metallic-Roughness Material model

  • baseColor — base color
  • metallic — metalness
  • roughness — roughness
  • Simple to implement - mandated in core

Specular-Glossiness Material model

  • diffuse — reflected diffuse color 
  • specular — specular color
  • glossiness — glossiness
  • Slightly more resources - optional extension

glTF Ecosystem

glTF 3D Asset Formats Ecosystemt

Industry Support for glTF

Publicly stated support for glTF

Join the Slack group Join the forums

glTF™ (GL Transmission Format) is a royalty-free specification for the efficient transmission and loading of 3D scenes and models by applications. glTF minimizes both the size of 3D assets, and the runtime processing needed to unpack and use those assets. glTF defines an extensible, common publishing format for 3D content tools and services that streamlines authoring workflows and enables interoperable use of content across the industry.


Please provide spec feedback by submitting issues. For technical or art workflow questions, or to showcase your work, join the glTF forum. For quick questions, use the #gltf channel in the Khronos Group Slack.



From | PDF | hardcopy | Khronos reference cards
Japanese translation by Takuto Takahashi

For developers

For artists

Preview tools


glTF Tools

Converters, Importers, and Exporters

Tool Input Output Description
Khronos Group Blender Importer/Exporter status status Official importer/exporter, included with Blender 2.80 and higher
3DS Max Exporter status Export glTF files using BabylonJS plugin for 3DS Max 2015 or later
Maya Exporter status Export glTF files using BabylonJS plugin for Maya 2018 or later
Unity Exporter (Sketchfab fork) status Unity editor wizard that exports to glTF Format
Unity COLLADA & glTF Exporter Unity 5 & Unity 2017 status Commercial unity asset store editor extension to export COLLADA and glTF via collada2gltf
Sketchup export and import status Separate extensions for export and import
PBR extension for SketchUp SKP status PBR Material Editor, glTF Exporter, PBR Viewport
obj2gltf OBJ status Command-line converter
Kupoman blendergltf status glTF exporter for Blender aimed at streaming scenes to other applications
ksons Blender Importer status Blender importer for glTF 2.0 (alpha) converter Multiple status Online drag and drop converter powered by three.js
Assimp Multiple status General-purpose online conversion pipeline
PiXYZ Studio Multiple status Interactively prepare & optimize any CAD data
FBX2glTF (Facebook) FBX status Command-line converter
FBX2glTF (ClayGL) FBX, COLLADA, OBJ status Python tool to convert models to glTF2.0 format, model is parsed by FBX SDK.
glTF API FBX, COLLADA, OBJ status Web API to convert OBJ, FBX and COLLADA files to glTF or GLB
Simplygon Cloud Multiple status Cloud based asset optimization pipeline
Verge3D status glTF 2.0 exporters for Blender and 3ds Max
COLLADA2GLTF COLLADA status Official command-line converter, with updates for glTF 2.0 in progress
Cesium drag-and-drop converter OBJ, COLLADA status Online drag and drop converter
Maya2glTF status Export glTF from Autodesk Maya
batchgltf COLLADA status Batch converter with GUI
FBX-glTF (Cyrillef) FBX status Plug-in and command-line converter
jgltf-obj OBJ status Java programmatic and command-line converters
Docker collada2gltf COLLADA status Docker container for Python web service, built on COLLADA2GLTF
collada2gltf-web-service COLLADA status Node.js web service, built on COLLADA2GLTF
cqparts STEP status Python CAD for programmers (import / export doc) (GLTFExporter)
FME Desktop Multiple status FME lets you move data between 400+ formats and applications using a drag-and-drop interface while preserving data quality throughout the conversion process.
UModel (UE Viewer) Unreal engine status UModel allows you to view static and animated mesh assets from Unreal engine games, and then export them into several formats including glTF 2.0
OPEN CASCADE CAD Assistant Multiple status Freeware multi-platform 3D Viewer and converter for 3D/CAD models with glTF 2.0 export support
Adobe Dimension FBX, STL, SKP, OBJ, glTF, GLB status Dimension allows users to easily build and render photo-real scenes. Export to glTF/GLB or use the Publish feature to share your scene on the web.
RapidCompact Multiple status Optimizes and converts 3D assets for efficient online presentation.
Cinema 4D Exporter status Export glTF from MAXON Cinema 4D
Revit glTF Exporter add-in status Paid add-in to export glTF from Autodesk Revit 2019 or later
Adobe Animate status Publish 2D animations to glTF/glb using Animate 2019 or later. Also create 360 degree VR content and embed 3D glb assets in the scene.
Datakit CrossManager converter Multiple status File converter. Supports multiple 3D formats inputs and outputs, including glTF output. Graphical interface or command-line


Tool Status Description
gltf-import-export status NPM package to convert between glb and gltf files
makeglb status Drag and drop browser tool to convert gltf to self contained binary glb
gltf-toolkit status Collection of tools and libraries to modify and optimize glTF assets for Windows Mixed Reality home
glTF Pipeline status Official Node.js command-line tool for optimizing glTF assets
gltf2glb status Python tool to convert glTF to Binary glTF
binary-gltf-utils status Node.js tool to convert glTF to Binary glTF
gltfpack status C++ tool for optimizing glTF assets for rendering performance and transmission size


Tool Status Description
glTF Validator status Official command-line and drag-and-drop tool to validate glTF assets against the specification
glTF VSCode Extension status 3D previews, built-in official glTF Validator, conversion to/from GLB

Viewers and Debugging

Tool Status Description
BabylonJS Sandbox status Drag-and-drop online viewer for model preview and debugging, using BabylonJS
three.js glTF Viewer status Drag-and-drop viewer (web and desktop) for model preview and debugging, using three.js
three.js Editor status Editor with drag-and-drop support
Clay Viewer status Drag-and-drop glTF2.0 viewer with high quality rendering and PBR material editing.
glTF Animation Visualizer status Frame-by-frame debugging for glTF animations.
VirtualGIS Viewer status Cesium-based glTF viewer.
GLTFQuickLook status macOS QuickLook plugin for glTF files
glTF Viewer status Android and iOS apps for glTF 2.0 viewing and link sharing: supports embedded glTF 2.0 files and links
DirectX glTF Viewer status DirectX11, C++ desktop app for loading and rendering glTF files
glTFShowcase status Android and iOS app for viewing glTF 2.0 asset from local files (gltf/glb/zip): supports environment lighting change.
Hilo3d glTF Viewer status Drag-and-drop glTF2.0 viewer for model preview, using Hilo3d
MeshViewer status OBJ / glTF2 mesh viewer for Windows and macOS
Diligent GLTF Viewer status Cross-platform GLTF PBR viewer with multiple rendering back-ends


Application Status Description
Blender 2.80 status Khronos glTF importer/exporter ships with Blender 2.80 and higher
Paint 3D by Microsoft status 3D creation tool
Remix 3D by Microsoft status Share and print 3D creations
Facebook status Use .glb files to create 3D Posts
Sketchfab status Platform to publish, share & discover 3D online and in VR
Wordpress (plugin) status Inline glTF renderer for WordPress
Modo by Foundry status 3D modeling, texturing & rendering tools
Substance Painter by Adobe status 3D painting software with glTF 2.0 import and export
Marmoset Toolbag status 3D real-time rendering, animation, and baking suite
Aspose.3D status File Format APIs for creating, editing, and converting over 100 file formats
3D Slash status Web-based and app-based 3D modeling imitating a stonecutter
Archilogic status Web-based 3D platform for architecture and interiors
Plex.Earth status Connects AutoCAD with Google Earth and the Real World.
VECTARY status Online 3D content creation tool
Visual Studio Code status Preview, validate, inspect, and debug glTF files
Esri CityEngine status Advanced 3D city design software supports glTF to import and export
ArcGIS Pro status Desktop GIS for 2D and 3D and supports usage of glTF content as markers in 3D.

Loaders and Engines

WebGL Engines

To compare WebGL-based glTF loaders, see gltf-test.

Engine Status Scope Related
three.js (loader) status All <model-viewer/> component, drag-and-drop viewer
BabylonJS (loader) status All Viewer component
Cesium (loader) status All Drag-and-drop viewer, tutorial
ArcGIS API for JavaScript status Geometry and materials Sample, guide
OSG.JS (loader) status All
Grimoire.js (loader) status Geometry and materials, partial animation
Hilo3d (loader) status All Doc
A-Frame (loader) status All Doc
xeogl (loader) status Geometry and materials Tutorial
ClayGL (loader) status All Examples
Verge3D (loader) status All
ReactVR status All
CZPG (loader) status All Examples
PEX (loader) status Geometry and materials
GLBoost (loader) status ? Examples
xml3d.js (loader) status Geometry and materials
X3DOM (loader) status Geometry and materials
RedGL status All Examples
Ashes status All Examples

WebGL Sample Code

Sample Status Description
Khronos glTF Sample Viewer status Engine-agnostic sample viewer with WebGL PBR shader for glTF 2.0 (source code)

Game and Rendering Engines

Tool Status Description
UnityGLTF status Unity3D library for exporting, loading, parsing, and rendering glTF assets
GLTFUtility status glTF 2.0 loader plugin for Unity3D
Unreal (forum / notes) status Unreal adds glTF import capability
Godot Game Engine status Godot 3.0 fully supports glTF import
jMonkeyEngine status jME 3.2 supports glTF 2.0
Ogre_glTF status glTF 2.0 loader plugin for Ogre v2-1
G3D Innovation Engine status glTF 2.0 import
LÖVR status A framework for creating VR with Lua
LibGDX glTF status LibGDX library for loading and rendering glTF assets
glTFast status Unity package for glTF 2.0 runtime loading

Embeddable Viewers

Tool Author Type Description
Babylon.js Viewer BabylonJS self-hosted HTML web component for viewing self-hosted glTF models.
<model-viewer> Google self-hosted HTML web component for viewing self-hosted glTF models.
Poly Google service glTF models hosted on Poly may be embedded in an iframe on any site.
Sketchfab Sketchfab service glTF models hosted on Sketchfab may be embedded in an iframe on any site, using the embed models feature.


JavaScript / Node.js

Tool Status Description
gltf-viewer status Web component to display glTF models on a website
minimal-gltf-loader status A minimal, engine-agnostic JavaScript glTF Loader, with a raw WebGL 2 renderer example
THREE.GLTFLoader status Loads glTF assets into a three.js scene.
THREE.GLTFExporter status Exports three.js scenes to a glTF asset
gltf-walker status Convenience library for processing glTF
RedCube.js status glTF viewer without dependencies
gltf-bounding-box status Computes the global bounding box of a gltf model


Tool Status Description
Tiny glTF loader status Header only C++ glTF parsing library, with Alembic→glTF and CyHair->glTF converters
yocto-gltf status Single file, header only, C++ glTF loading/writing automatically generated from the spec
glTF2-loader status C++14 glTF (2.0 only) parsing library, by Lugdunum3D
gltfpp status glTF 2.0 loader for C++14
fx-gltf status A C++14/C++17 header-only library for simple, efficient, and robust serialization/deserialization of glTF 2.0
TGen status Simple C++ Tangent Generator
Microsoft.glTF.CPP status A C++ library for serializing and deserializing gltf/glb files. | status |
Qt 3D status Qt 3D provides functionality for near-realtime simulation systems
Laugh Engine status Vulkan PBR and IBL renderer
Lugdunum3D status A modern cross-platform 3D rendering engine built with Vulkan and modern C++14
UX3D Engine status Cross-platform multi-threaded Vulkan 3D Engine with glTF 2.0 import and export
Cinder status Work-in-progress glTF importer
nvpro-pipeline status Research rendering pipeline by NVIDIA for minimizing CPU cost
AssetKit ? 3D asset importer/exporter/util library
libgltf status glTF 2.0 parser for C++11
libgltf_ue4 status A third-party library for UE4.10+ to load glTF files
glTF for UE4 status A plugin for UE4.10+ to import glTF files
Diligent Engine status A modern cross-platform low-level graphics libarary and rendering framework
Datakit CrossCad/Ware SDK status A library to write glTF or glb files. Can also read and write multiple 3D formats


Tool Status Description
GLTFKit status An Objective-C glTF 2.0 loader and Metal-based renderer


Tool Status Description
C# glTF loader status C# reference loader for glTF
Aspose.3D for .NET status Import, export, and convert glTF
MixedRealityToolkit-Unity status A collection of scripts and components intended to accelerate development of applications targeting Microsoft HoloLens and Windows Mixed Reality headsets.
SharpGLTF status C# toolkit for reading and writing glTF files.
DEM.Net status C# toolkit for Digital Elevation Models, exporting models with textures and normal maps to glTF files.


Tool Status Description
AssetKit status 3D asset importer, exporter library.
cgltf status Single-header C glTF loader.


Tool Status Description
gltf status go library for marshaling and unmarshaling glTF
gltf 2.0 status A Go glTF 2.0 writer, reader and validator


Tool Status Description
Loader status A crate for loading glTF 2.0
Viewer status glTF 2.0 Viewer written in Rust


Tool Status Description
haxe-gltf status A Haxe library for reading glTF


Tool Status Description
JglTF-mesh status Generate glTF meshes and geometry in Java


Tool Status Description
Orka status The OpenGL 4.5 Rendering Kernel in Ada


Tool Status Description
gltf-typescript-generator status CLI to generate a TypeScript interface for glTF


Tool Status Description
GLTFSceneKit status glTF loader for SceneKit


Tool Status Description
trimesh status Python library for importing and exporting glTF and numerous other triangular mesh formats.
pygltflib status Python library for reading, writing and converting glTF 2.0 files.


  • gltf-utilities - JavaScript utility library to help load glTF
  • wetzel - Generate Markdown documentation from JSON Schema
  • gltf-enum - Simple site to help work with all the different enums in glTF spec


  • glTF-Generator-Registry - An open registry of tools that create glTF assets, along with structured metadata such as links to documentation and bug trackers.

Formats Built on glTF

  • 3D Tiles - An open standard for streaming and rendering massive heterogenous 3D content.

Stack Overflow

Presentations and Articles



All Presentations and Articles

We believe the true usefulness of glTF goes beyond the spec itself; it is an ecosystem of tools, documentation, and extensions contributed by the community. You are encouraged to get involved!