Copyright 2014-2018 The Khronos Group Inc.

This Specification is protected by copyright laws and contains material proprietary to Khronos. Except as described by these terms, it or any components may not be reproduced, republished, distributed, transmitted, displayed, broadcast or otherwise exploited in any manner without the express prior written permission of Khronos. Khronos grants a conditional copyright license to use and reproduce the unmodified Specification for any purpose, without fee or royalty, EXCEPT no licenses to any patent, trademark or other intellectual property rights are granted under these terms.

Khronos makes no, and expressly disclaims any, representations or warranties, express or implied, regarding this Specification, including, without limitation: merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement of any intellectual property, correctness, accuracy, completeness, timeliness, and reliability. Under no circumstances will Khronos, or any of its Promoters, Contributors or Members, or their respective partners, officers, directors, employees, agents or representatives be liable for any damages, whether direct, indirect, special or consequential damages for lost revenues, lost profits, or otherwise, arising from or in connection with these materials.

This Specification has been created under the Khronos Intellectual Property Rights Policy, which is Attachment A of the Khronos Group Membership Agreement available at, and which defines the terms 'Scope', 'Compliant Portion', and 'Necessary Patent Claims'. Parties desiring to implement the Specification and make use of Khronos trademarks in relation to that implementation, and receive reciprocal patent license protection under the Khronos Intellectual Property Rights Policy must become Adopters and confirm the implementation as conformant under the process defined by Khronos for this Specification; see

This Specification contains substantially unmodified functionality from, and is a successor to, Khronos specifications including OpenGL, OpenGL ES and OpenCL.

Some parts of this Specification are purely informative and so are EXCLUDED from the Scope of this Specification. The Document Conventions section of the Introduction defines how these parts of the Specification are identified.

Where this Specification uses technical terminology, defined in the Glossary or otherwise, that refer to enabling technologies that are not expressly set forth in this Specification, those enabling technologies are EXCLUDED from the Scope of this Specification. For clarity, enabling technologies not disclosed with particularity in this Specification (e.g. semiconductor manufacturing technology, hardware architecture, processor architecture or microarchitecture, memory architecture, compiler technology, object oriented technology, basic operating system technology, compression technology, algorithms, and so on) are NOT to be considered expressly set forth; only those application program interfaces and data structures disclosed with particularity are included in the Scope of this Specification.

For purposes of the Khronos Intellectual Property Rights Policy as it relates to the definition of Necessary Patent Claims, all recommended or optional features, behaviors and functionality set forth in this Specification, if implemented, are considered to be included as Compliant Portions.

Where this Specification includes normative references to external documents, only the specifically identified sections of those external documents are INCLUDED in the Scope of this Specification. If not created by Khronos, those external documents may contain contributions from non-members of Khronos not covered by the Khronos Intellectual Property Rights Policy.

Vulkan and Khronos are registered trademarks of The Khronos Group Inc. ASTC is a trademark of ARM Holdings PLC; OpenCL is a trademark of Apple Inc.; and OpenGL is a registered trademark of Silicon Graphics International, all used under license by Khronos. All other product names, trademarks, and/or company names are used solely for identification and belong to their respective owners.